List Of Unit Process In Chemical Engineering

Himmelblau. Perhaps most significantly, it continues to evolve to meet the ever-expanding needs of chemical engineers. Flash Distillation in Chemical & Process Engineering Learn How to Model and Operate Flash Distillation Units in Chemical Plants 4. Many of the engineering problems facing the nation in the next decades will require solutions by engineers who have training in both chemical process engineering and materials engineering. Problem-solving and computer. Sulfamol Process for the removal of Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide. Analysis of Unit Operation will help you in order to optimise the Chemical Plant. CourseProfile (ATLAS) CHE 487. Elsevier's broad content in this area examines topics such as bioprocessing, polymer nano-composites, biomass gasification and. trays to be sealed to shell with steam quality rubber gaskets. balance from electives (i) a minimum of 4 units from courses on the BE(Hons) list, other than courses on the Chemical Engineering part B0 list, and (ii) a maximum of 4 units from courses on the Chemical Engineering part B0 list, and (iii) a maximum of 4 units from level one courses not on the BE(Hons) list; OR; an extended major - 60 units. 28 ℹ CiteScore: 2019: 3. Introduction to Separation Process Engineering Why are we—as chemical engineers—required to study “separation processes”? Separations are crucial in chemical engi-neering (e. Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering helps in providing man-made and synthetic. Unitoperation. Modern chemical engineering is a vast subject extending far beyond its traditional roots in oil and gas processing. • (range: manufacturers of inorganic- and organic-industrial chemicals. Giulietti 1,2, M. However, many have never considered or studied process dynamics. Houston provides rich resources for collaboration in these areas with industry and researchers in the Texas Medical Center. I am a Chemical Engineer with abouth 2 years experience. Excel spreadsheets (curve fitting, heat conduction), Matlab, Aspen Plus (process simulation), algorithms and object oriented concepts in chemical engineering. Industrial Chemical Technology. Heat Exchangers : 11. According to the BLS, the median annual wage for chemical/process engineers was $102,160 in May 2017 with projected job growth of 8% from 2016 to 2026. These articles were originally developed for The Nexus Blog. Chemical Engineering 245 Goodwin Hall (MC 0211) 635 Prices Fork Rd. Modern chemical engineering is a vast subject extending far beyond its traditional roots in oil and gas processing. Chemical Process Engineering - Design & Economics by Harry Silla Pipe Hydraulics 1. UCD School of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering is a leading centre for education and research in engineering in Ireland. The technique of goal programming has been applied in Chemical Engineering by Kraslawski et al. The award recognizes outstanding student leaders who have made significant contributions to improve the quality of life and community at WPI. She then received her Ph. ) is of prime importance in Jamaica, with sugar and food having. unit or basic operation — is one of the main purposes of food engineering. 3 Drying Processes. GE Water & Process Technologies Confirmed Industrial Training for Chemical Engineering Students of SoE-IT. Raised 2 tons production on daily basis by research and process modification done. An experienced user spent 20 minutes creating this. Chem & Proc tech Oil & Gas tech Heat Exch tech Gen Tech Webworm DC Chemical and Process Engineering Chemical Engineering World Smart Process Design ChEng. Industrial crystallization processes are widely used in the chemical process… TECHNOLOGY PROFILE Technology Profile: Production of Vinyl Chloride Monomer This column is based on “Vinyl Chloride Production from Ethylene… EQUIPMENT & SERVICES FOCUS Focus on Maintenance Tools Software determines when to maintenance RO systems This company has…. Nguyen - MDPI AG, 2018 The goal of this special issue is to provide a forum for recent developments in theory, state-of-the-art experiments, and computations on the interaction between flow and transfer in single and multi-phase flow, and from small. Read reviews to decide if a class is right for you. rules of thumb for chemical engineers pdf free download. For example, in milk processing, homogenization, pasteurization, and. Plant and Process Design; Environmental Engineering & Waste Management; Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering; Handbooks For Chemical Engineering; API; Chemical Engg Project Design. Price, $10. Instructions for file “EQUIPMENT COSTS” accompanying Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, 5th edition, Peters, Timmerhaus, and West. Students must register in one of the Chemical Engineering-specific CHEM 315 lab sections. Tech Students Question asked by Ankita Katdare in #Coffee Room on Jun 27, 2012 Feed Ask New Question. This subject deals with the application of the science and engineering science that you have learned to the separation of chemical and biological mixtures. example, just a sketch of the process is required. Terminology to support manufacturing process characterization and assessment for sustainable production. Industrial chemical technology Journals deals with the chemical unit operations, organic, analytical and inorganic chemistry, mathematics, policies and practices in areas of environmental, health and safety, process system control, laboratory instrumentation, and statistics for quality help the graduate to understand the operations of modern chemical industries. Lang and Lang Factors. Thus, 0 0 20 sp. Introduction "Chemical engineering" is the branch of engineering stream deals with the design, control, construction, supervision, installing and operating of equipments and the plants for manufacturing the chemical products. The column at the left lists equipment types alphabetically. The unit operations framework was defined to provide method and structure to the synthesis and analysis of chemical plants, as well as a rational and systematic path for performing process design calculations. Weighted average of 8 of these: cement 2% paint 5% chemicals 48% paper 10% clay products 2% petroleum 22% glass 3% rubber 8% M&S was 100 in 1926. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139. Chemical engineering. Our students develop leadership skills, have opportunities for work in industry and research, learn safe practices, and gain a strong foundation in math and science. Â Each method of achieving supersaturation. The chemical equivalent of one unit operation, one unit process, is the individual physical step in a chemical engineering process (like crystallization, drying or evaporation), which is used to prepare elements during chemical processing in reactors. The course provides an overview of modern chemical engineering and can be a valuable refresher for practicing chemical engineers. 1 (202 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. A chemical engineering perspective of nanoparticle‐based targeted drug delivery: A unit process approach Aaron C. 4: Graduate subjects may not be used as restricted electives. Merox Process. 1 Consistency of units 1. 2 America’s Energy Challenge 8 0. Anselmo David H. Draw the system and label its parts. Bioreactor instrumentation and performance optimization. Operating Conditions All unit operations in the process model are kept under particular operating conditions (i. Chemical Engineering Resume Sample If you want to get a new job as a chemical engineer, it's time to write your resume and update it with all the recent achievements and experience. In order to separate or remove one or more components from an original mixture, it must be contacted with another phase. The chemical engineering unit process-oxidation Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. (The number is known as Avogadro's Number, or the Avogadro constant. Learn more about our department. Apr 20, 2020 - Basic Principles of Unit Processes and Unit Operations in Organic Chemical Industries (Part - 3) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of Chemical Engineering. Type of change: Physical or chemical Possibility (thermodynamic) and speed (Kinetics) End point vs. 2: Students may substitute two of the depth electives with 100-level lecture or lab course(s) offered in one of the following engineering disciplines: BIOE, CEE, CME, CS, EE, MS&E, MATSCI, and ME (must be taken for a minimum of 3 units. “Chemical engineering… as distinguished from the aggregate number of subjects comprised in courses of that name, is not a composite of chemistry and mechanical and civil engineering, but a science of itself, the basis of which is those unit operations which in their proper sequence and coordination constitute a chemical process as conducted on the. 5 credits) and go on with an Internship & Job Orientation Project (20 credits) at a company in The Netherlands or abroad. At this point we like to list the kind of internships available to people with this degree, but there's not much point to that when it comes to Chemical Engineering. Chemical Engineering- Separation process. Chemical Process Engineering. Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) (Chemical Process) Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) (Chemical Process) Chemical Process Engineering is a relatively new degree and we are currently in the process of seeking accreditation by the Institution of Chemical Engineers to provide additional international recognition. The Chemical Engineering group researches all the relevant aspects of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, from fundamental science to engineering applications, working on scales that go from molecular-sized systems to large industrial plants. With so many choices it can be a daunting task finding the best choice. (Bio)Chemical Process Control Research Unit (UR-CPC), Department of Chemical Engineering. In such processes, by combination (chemical reaction) of two or more chemicals, a new product (compound) is formed. Rangaiah, Gade Pandu. Browse the list of 115 Chemical Engineering abbreviations with their meanings and definitions. CHG 1125 Chemical Engineering Fundamentals (3 units) Chemical Engineering profession in relation to the chemical process industry. Course Outline Session 10 - Common Principles of Change. [email protected] The ability to understand, and apply the full spectrum of chemical engineering knowledge can be crucial to success in the food industry. PROTECH CONSULTANTS PRIVATE LIMITED (PROTECH) is a reputed firm of consultants to the Chemical Industry in India and abroad. April 27, 2011 Archived Webinar CCPS Center for Chemical Process Safety. His current research interests involve transport processes, biochemical reactor engineering, mass transfer in liquid solutions, and diffusion and/or reaction in porous solids. Engineering Chemical Process Systems © IDC Technologies Ver 1. 28 ℹ CiteScore: 2019: 3. Next, the syrupy. r/ ChemicalEngineering. List of all most popular abbreviated Chemical Engineering terms defined. The Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering has a long history in the development of materials for a broad range of industrial applications. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc. Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Technology CE-451 2. Their work focuses on process engineering and project management from the conceptual design to a successful start-up. unit operations such as mixers, separators, reactors, distillation columns and heat exchangers are usually denoted by a simple block or rectangle. ©Encyclopedia Of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) substantial part of the fundamentals of “ Chemical Engineering”. Here's a look at some of the courses chemical engineering students are expected to take in college. Chemical engineering jobs involve solving problems for the production and processing of chemical compounds. 21,2007) Archives April 2007 May 2007 June 2007 July 2007 August 2007 September 2007 October 2007 November 2007 December 2007 January 2008 February 2008 March 2008 April. 00 am to 18. For all of the diagrams discussed in this chapter, there are no universally accepted standards. The purpose of this book is to create a platform for the exchange of different experimental techniques, approaches and lessons, in addition to new ideas and strategies in teaching laboratory unit operations to. Each material has a property profile. Air and media sterilization processes. Chemical Process Engineering - Design & Economics by Harry Silla Pipe Hydraulics 1. This text is designed for chemical and biochemical engineering students (senior undergraduate year, plus appropriate for capstone design courses where taken, plus graduates) and lecturers/tutors, and professionals in industry (chemical process, biochemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical sectors). ) Chemical Engineering. Harriot, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill (2005). equilibrium point Phase equilibrium and Reaction equilibrium. Prerequisites: CHE 201, CHE 206, CHE 315 and either CHE 232 or CHE 235; Chemical Engineering majors only or permission of instructor. In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering educates engineers to design, develop and operate chemical processes by which chemicals, petroleum products, food, pharmaceuticals and consumer goods can be produced economically and safely. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering. While the predominance of unit operations in chemical engineering courses in Britain and the United States continued until the 1960s, transport phenomena started to experience greater focus. Facilities; Our people. Hands on Experience in using Chemical Process Simulation software’s like Aspen Hysys, Aspen Plus, Chemcad PRO II, Unisim , Flarenet, and HTRI is an added advantage. They understand processes and process design. FULL YEAR UNIT: No: PRE-REQUISITES: ENS2116 - Process Systems Analysis : MODE OF DELIVERY: On-campus: DESCRIPTION Unit operations in chemical engineering deals with the change of substances (gases, liquids, solids) by means of physical, chemical and biological processes for industrial purposes. Unit 3237 Storrs, CT 06269-3237. Journal Home. Air and media sterilization processes. Chemical Engineering plant design All engineering aspects involved in the development of a new, modified, or expanded commercial process in a chemical or biochemical plant. And given the complexity of the problem, errors were common. Mass transfer processes, including gas absorption , distillation ,. We work directly w. Process Engineer: Most new hires with a Chemical Engineering degree start off as a Process Engineer. Study abroad programmes. hot new top rising. Chemical engineering (also called process engineering) is the application of physics, chemistry, and biology, with mathematics, for the purpose of converting raw materials into more usable forms. You also gain an awareness of the global and societal context in which engineering solutions are applied. operation and chemical and catalysts for initial loading and for 2 years operation (herein individual or together referred to as ’Materials’), which enter into the realization of the "Unit" with the conditions as defined in the ’Contract’. Process intensification (PI) is a chemical and process design approach that leads to substantially smaller, cleaner, safer and more energy-efficient process technology. Unit Process. How to apply chemical engineering knowledge to further your bench-grade process: design a pilot, and participate in the design of a full scale layout. example, just a sketch of the process is required. 0 GPA in the following categories must be maintained at all times: Overall, USF, Math/Science, Engineering and Specialization. Weighted average of 8 of these: cement 2% paint 5% chemicals 48% paper 10% clay products 2% petroleum 22% glass 3% rubber 8% M&S was 100 in 1926. Overview; Andrew Payne; Motlatsi Mabaso; Tim Egan; Wesley Neutt; Nicolas von Solms. By using applied physical sciences like physics and chemistry in concert with advanced mathematics, chemical engineers are capable of creating new and more useful forms of raw materials and chemicals. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering (7th edition)(McGraw Hill Chemical Engineering Series) [Warren McCabe, Julian Smith, Peter Harriott] on Amazon. 2015) to documents published in three previous calendar years (e. ) is of prime importance in Jamaica, with sugar and food having. Books shelved as chemical-engineering: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by Warren L. WRITE CODE. Sanjeev Yadav. Fundamentals – material and energy balancing Practical, timely information on chemical reactor design, reaction systems, and chemical process economics. HYSYS is able to perform many of the core calculations of chemical engineering, including those concerned with mass balance, energy balance, vapor-liquid equilibrium, heat. For example, in milk processing, homogenization, pasteurization, and. The Chemical and Biological Engineering Department offers a Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering, with tracks in Biological Engineering and Process Engineering. Chemical and biochemical engineers are doing all of these and more. Process Dynamics and Control 6. 490 Integrated Chemical Engineering (with permission of instructor), or one subject of at least 9 units in Chemical Engineering. Please enter a chemical molecular formula (Input is case sensitive: Co;Cobalt, CO;carbonmonoxide) und click on "Calculate" to determine the molecular mass of the compound. ) that are neede. For example, chemical engineers are important in the automotive industry, for work with batteries, tires, and engines. If you’ve ever followed a recipe, you know that the amount of each ingredient and the order in which you mix them matters. Mixing :. Review nuclear power, combustion, fossil fuels, radiation, radioactive decay, and more. This is a chemical process flowsheet simulation, optimization and design package. Top Chemical Engineering universities. Chemical Engineering Vocabulary. This core is complemented by general courses in other engineering disciplines to provide greater exposure to the engineering profession and to help prepare the students for professional. Plant layout is as important a part of process plant design as it ever was, but it is rarely taught as part of chemical engineering courses. The Department of Chemical Engineering - About Chemical Engineering The Chemical Engineering Group offers one (1) BSc programme in Chemical and Process Engineering and (2) MSc programmes in Chemical and Process Engineering, and Chemical and Process Engineering with Management. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Name of Subject Chem. Certification of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18000 standards. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering (7th edition)(McGraw Hill Chemical Engineering Series) [Warren McCabe, Julian Smith, Peter Harriott] on Amazon. operation and chemical and catalysts for initial loading and for 2 years operation (herein individual or together referred to as ’Materials’), which enter into the realization of the "Unit" with the conditions as defined in the ’Contract’. Track 16: Unit operation and Separation Process. Generally, the fields of chemical and biological engineering are extremely broad, and encompass all technologies and industries where chemical processing is utilized in any form. Review, check and approve any and all Specifications for compliance with the Contract requirements. , temperature, pressure, size). Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. (for profound grounding in chemical Engineering Science as basics). CHEM E 326 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics (4) Phase equilibria and chemical equilibria in multicomponent systems; theories of solution; chemical reaction analysis. 2015) to documents published in three previous calendar years (e. Chemical engineering, the development of processes and the design and operation of plants in which materials undergo changes in their physical or chemical state. Chemical and Process Engineering Keeping your edge with sustainable, efficient solutions No two chemical and processing projects are alike – and neither are our solutions. Fundamentals - material and energy balancing; Practical, timely information on chemical reactor design, reaction systems, and chemical process economics. Introduction "Chemical engineering" is the branch of engineering stream deals with the design, control, construction, supervision, installing and operating of equipments and the plants for manufacturing the chemical products. Process Engineering Manager: Job Duties & Career Requirements Read on to learn more about what process engineering managers do. The programme starts in September. Developed by Paul Anastas and Julie Zimmerman*, these engineering principles outline what would make a greener chemical process or product. This book is a collection of several chemical process, fertilizer industries, paints oil refineries, sugar industries,ceramic industries, glass industries, etc. The product is dropped onto conveyor belts and is taken to the next unit in the process. Chemical Engineering jobs now available in Brisbane QLD. Lang, an engineer for Day & Zimmermann, Inc. Satisfy any other additional requirements that may be prescribed by SCALE, the Faculty of Engineering, or the University. Chemical engineering unit operations consist of five classes: Fluid flow processes, including fluids transportation , filtration , and solids fluidization. The series comprises the most widely adopted college textbooks and supplements for chemical engineering education. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Evaporation : 4. VTU-Engineering is developer, engineer and supplier of processing plants in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, chemical, oil & gas, and power industries. A huge collection of online process engineering tools provided by Process Associates of America. 3, in which each block represents a stage in the overall process for producing a product from the raw materials. The position listed below is not with Rapid Interviews but with Amgen Our goal is to connect you with supportive resources in order to attain your dream career. You will find the professional development programs are delivered in multiple modes including classroom, virtual online and online for Individuals as well as Corporates. chemical or mechanical engineering, and 2) industrial engineers or chemists who are being introduced to industrial safety for the first time. Solution Manual for Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering 7th Edition by McCabe. Room 312, 3rd floor,. As a chemical engineer, you will be able to contribute to society through research, process or product development, pollution control, energy studies, and so much more. This series provides significant supplementary material for an existing undergraduate chemical engineering course on chemical process safety. Students can find below the marking scheme. Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering (E13) - Duration: 4:39. Introduction to basic analysis of chemical engineering systems, emphasizing material balances on physical and chemical process systems. Course Outline Session 10 - Common Principles of Change. Gas Processors Association, 2004. Chemical Engineering students Ashley Choi, '19; Maggie Kuck, '19; and Liv Verdone, '19 are winners of the 2019 Crimson and Gray Award. Reaction engineering is a branch of chemical engineering that deals with the design and optimization of chemical reactors. Gattermann Reaction: Is a process used to convert an aromatic amine in to 4. Van Ness, M. In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process. Gas Absorption is one of the very first Mass Transfer Unit Operations studied in early process engineering. Modeling and Simulation in ChE by R. Highly customizable, flexible, and affordable. Introduction "Chemical engineering" is the branch of engineering stream deals with the design, control, construction, supervision, installing and operating of equipments and the plants for manufacturing the chemical products. This Master’s track at the University of Twente distinguishes itself from other process technology tracks, as it is closely connected to materials science and. Trusek-Hołownia) Electives II : Statistical thermodynamics in molecular modeling - 2w (2 ECTS) Materials used in chemical unit operation 2w (2 ECTS) Microwaves and other advanced thermal technologies in chemical engineering - 2w (2 ECTS) New concepts. This revision modernizes our curriculum, offers increased flexibility in elective options and provides optional specialty tracks in Process Engineering and Biological Engineering for those who want to focus their degree. Room 312, 3rd floor,. Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with the application of physical science to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. Ranked in the UK Top 10 in both subject areas for 2016. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Ron. Process Engineer: Most new hires with a Chemical Engineering degree start off as a Process Engineer. UNIT OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES Waste water treatment is any operation / process or combinations of operations and processes that can reduce the objectionable properties of waste water and render it less dangerous. Make sure that you clearly understand all the words. 2: Students may substitute two of the depth electives with 100-level lecture or lab course(s) offered in one of the following engineering disciplines: BIOE, CEE, CME, CS, EE, MS&E, MATSCI, and ME (must be taken for a minimum of 3 units. The unit operation of drying presents more challenge to achieve a certain level of quality than does rinsing or. Established and led agile team of 5 people covering font, backend and testing activities for the product. I worked in the Biotech industry, but I wish to move to Houston and work in the Oil and Gas sector as a Process Engineer. Since 1968 we have been publishing a wide range of process safety and chemical engineering focused books. Introduction to Complex Numbers. Most disciplines are able to offer assessment before the Christmas break so that students who are required to return to their home institution by early January can complete their studies at. Chemical Engineering Journals Share this page Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that combines pure sciences like physics, chemistry mathematics and economics to produce applications in energy, materials, construction medicine and healthcare sectors to improve the quality of life. Unit operation: In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process. Our students develop leadership skills, have opportunities for work in industry and research, learn safe practices, and gain a strong foundation in math and science. Department celebrates December graduates in Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering. Students work in small teams and with the lab instructor when in the laboratory (small class sizes allow for one-on-one interaction with the students). Education for Chemical Engineers was launched in 2006 with a remit to publisheducation research papers, resource reviews and teaching and learning notes. Project Engineering Standard LAYOUT AND SPACING (PROJECT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS) Page 8 of 54 Rev: 07 Feb 2011 g. The Bachelor of Engineering with Honours in Chemical and Process Engineering offered by UC is fully accredited by the Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE) as well as Engineering New Zealand. Chemical engineering is all about changing raw materials into useful products such as clothes, food and drink, and energy. Chemical Engineering – Technical Education Board … Introduction to Process Calculation Stoichiometry by K. Specific processes considered will include distillation, membrane processes, chromatography and adsorption. Pre-design labs are also introduced. This is world's largest collection of Chemical Engineering Quiz questions and answers. Chemical Engineering largely involves the design and maintenance of chemical processes for large-scale manufacture. Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering 4. Panorama Consulting Engineers India Opening Time: 10. This book will help you predict the characteristics of a process using mathematical models and. Middle Distillate: Term applied to hydrocarbons in the so-called "middle range" of refinery distillation. Introduction to Chemical Engineering 1. For CRISPR, tweaking DNA fragments before inserting yields highest efficiency rates yet. Because their role is to put scientific principles into practice in manufacturing industries, chemical engineers must develop good working relationships with other. 21,2007) Archives April 2007 May 2007 June 2007 July 2007 August 2007 September 2007 October 2007 November 2007 December 2007 January 2008 February 2008 March 2008 April. UNIT 5: CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING Chemical Kinetics, Rate equations, Interpretation of rate data, Design of reactors, Catalysis, Multiphase reactors. It starts in the lab, much like science, yet progresses through the design and implementation of a full-scale process, its maintenance, and methods of testing. YNU 1 Roles and Responsibilities of Manufacturing Engineering in Japan and Europe Understanding Japan„s current and future automotive industry. 4 (22 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. Welcome to Chemical Engineering One of the key sectors in the economies of the English-speaking Caribbean is the process industry. Chemical Engineering combines the principles of mathematics, chemistry and physics with engineering practices in order to improve the human environment. The course contains selected topics, and alumni seminars covering the full range of career opportunities from emerging areas (nanotechnology, biochemical, multifunctional materials) to those found in the more traditional positions within the chemical, petrochemical and petroleum industries. process flow diagrams, numerical methods, graphing, and applied statistics. It is essential that both the Graduate School and the Chemical Engineering Department receive the materials they require by the deadlines to be considered for admission. Chemical engineers learn the broad concepts of chemical engineering, but their work requires them to apply those concepts to specific production problems. Chemical engineering is the technical processing of materials and chemicals using knowledge from mathematics and natural sciences in order to create a reliable and functioning process related to food production, medicine and other fields. Chemical engineers work in a wide range of industries with worldwide impact. The UK's Only School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Chemical Engineering Vocabulary. A ''unit process'' is one or more grouped operations in a manufacturing system that can be defined and separated from others. in chemical engineer-chemical engineering curriculum, especially for the process ing from UTin 1967 He is retired from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In keeping with the philosophy of vocational training, the Department has one of the most comprehensive laboratory facilities in the country, and is actively involved in relevant research. He is a fellow in the American Institute of Chemical Engineering and the. SAVE LIVES. UNIT OPERATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, by Warren L. Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory. Process Engineering provides the chemical or biochemical processes and equipment that are used to turn raw materials into an end product and is an essential part of the manufacturing industry. On successful start-up, the plant produced on-spec ethylene and propylene. The chemical equivalent of one unit operation, one unit process, is the individual physical step in a chemical engineering process (like crystallization, drying or evaporation), which is used to prepare elements during chemical processing in reactors. No civil engineer can afford to overlook this complete, authoritative work in stocking his library. process is most easily done using a word processor. Barry Wiskel, Hani Henein and Amos Ben-Zvi, developed a no-contact 3D imaging process, which provides information on the strain history of pipe while it is being formed. That situation motivated Dr. Searching Compendex and Inspec on Engineering Village helps me keep up to date in my field of research. October 26, 2017; Students from Department of Chemical Engineering of School of Engineering & Information Technology [SoE-IT] have completed their internship at GE Water & Process Technologies during July - August 2017 on ‘Hydrocarbon Process Training – Phase I successfully. pinned by moderators. Unit 3237 Storrs, CT 06269-3237. Process Engineer: Most new hires with a Chemical Engineering degree start off as a Process Engineer. The product is dropped onto conveyor belts and is taken to the next unit in the process. For the specialization in Molecules & Materials Engineering starting in February is also possible, but only after approval of the Admission Committee. Introduction to basic analysis of chemical engineering systems, emphasizing material balances on physical and chemical process systems. Chemical Engineering Process Simulation is ideal for students, early career researchers, and practitioners, as it guides you through chemical processes and unit operations using the main simulation softwares that are used in the industrial sector. CheSheets provide Chemical Engineering Spreadsheets developed in Google Sheets™ - a web based spreadsheet program. We Made Unique and Easy Quiz To Help Amazing Career. Prerequisites: CHE 201, CHE 206, CHE 315 and either CHE 232 or CHE 235; Chemical Engineering majors only or permission of instructor. Process Engineers usually work for chemical or metallurgical factories. The Department of Chemical Engineering - About Chemical Engineering The Chemical Engineering Group offers one (1) BSc programme in Chemical and Process Engineering and (2) MSc programmes in Chemical and Process Engineering, and Chemical and Process Engineering with Management. In order to achieve a better performance, it is important to monitor the chemical constituents of the process. First they learn to convert low-level voltage signals from process instrumentation into a measured value in engineering units. Mathematical optimization. Students will be introduced to the concepts and tools. Students work in small teams and with the lab instructor when in the laboratory (small class sizes allow for one-on-one interaction with the students). ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎝ ⎛ index value at timet index value now ChE 4253 - Design I. It is also involved in the development of new methods for production. In this International Women’s Day spotlight, Hooper shares her journey to McMaster, what it means to be a woman in engineering and how she strives to become the best parent she can be. A mole represents 6. The basic types of engineering controls are: Process control. Process Results chemical process engineering services range from specific design. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 4 certified. Unit Operations Of Chemical Engineering 7th Edition Pdf. Level 2 Diploma in Process Technology - Metal Production. Developed by Paul Anastas and Julie Zimmerman*, these engineering principles outline what would make a greener chemical process or product. ACCEL is a Public Limited Company and subsidiary of Industrial Engineering Corporation (IEC), Chennai based company and is the pioneer in HVACR field for over four decades. Chemical Process Engineering. example, just a sketch of the process is required. The Tim Taylor Department of Chemical Engineering at K-State provides all students the opportunity to become great engineers. Here are famous Chemical Engineers every student and professional must know. A chemical reaction rearranges the constituent atoms of the reactants to create different substances as products. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc. I already tried applying for KBR, Jacobs. They use life sciences such as Biology and Bio-Chemistry, as well as other science, like Chemistry and Physical Science. Lang, an engineer for Day & Zimmermann, Inc. Do some research and determine the major advantage of using a Rankine cycle with an organic as a working fluid as opposed to water. The expanded second edition contains revised content with many new case studies and additional example calculations that are of interest to chemical engineers. Himmelblau. in Philadelphia, PA, wrote a series of articles 3, 4, 5 suggesting a simplified method for obtaining a quick estimate of approximate cost of process plants. Together, we work to advance the profession in the public interest. The uses of P&ID are as follows. The Department of Chemical Engineering at Imperial College London is one of the world's leading institutions in both the teaching and research of chemical engineering and technology. Biomedical Engineering Design and Innovation I. That’s why each year we bring leading chemical and process safety experts across Australia and New Zealand together at our conference Hazards Australasia. Preface The science of unit operations of chemical engineering is the foundation on which various problems associated with designs, fabrications, installation, operations and maintenance of facilities of processes are solved. You also gain an awareness of the global and societal context in which engineering solutions are applied. Here, where possible "safe" chemicals are initially introduced, water, steam and air, to simulate closely the unit in actual operation and to give an indication of how the plant will probably perform when the process chemicals are introduced and the main commissioning and start-up event takes place. Chemical Engineering and Chemistry is one of the nine departments of Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e). Comprehensive reviews of process instruments and control equipment are published periodically in the journal Chemical Engineering. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search. Chemical engineering jobs involve solving problems for the production and processing of chemical compounds. The PFD from. Mass transfer processes, including gas absorption , distillation ,. The current main scientific research directions include Chemical Reaction Engineering. A module with module code TCNxxxx is equivalent to the module CNxxxx/CNxxxxR offered to full-time students. Evaporation : 4. Project title: Single-cluster electrocatalysis for electrical energy storage Supervisor. Chemical Engineering Sciences had its auspicious beginning in 1956 under the direction of Neal R. You will find the professional development programs are delivered in multiple modes including classroom, virtual online and online for Individuals as well as Corporates. A huge collection of online process engineering tools provided by Process Associates of America. Because their role is to put scientific principles into practice in manufacturing industries, chemical engineers must develop good working relationships with other. Unitoperation. MEASURED THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND OTHER BASIC CONCEPTS | 5 1. Chemical engineering professor Marc D. Introduction to chemical engineering, calculations, unit equations, process stoichiometry, material and energy balances, states of matter, case studies. Multi-objective optimization in chemical engineering : developments and applications / [edited by] Gade Rangaiah, Adrián Bonilla-Petriciolet. The engineering design process is a series of steps that engineers follow to come up with a solution to a problem. Fundamentals - material and energy balancing; Practical, timely information on chemical reactor design, reaction systems, and chemical process economics. Type of change: Physical or chemical Possibility (thermodynamic) and speed (Kinetics) End point vs. In this International Women’s Day spotlight, Hooper shares her journey to McMaster, what it means to be a woman in engineering and how she strives to become the best parent she can be. Credit equivalence. Graduates, Stay in Touch! Please register your up-to-date contact details with us. in Chemical Engineering from Michigan Technological University in 2017 under the guidance of Dr. Process Engineer, Heat transfer engineer require technical knowledge in Chemical Engineering along with Chemical Process Calculations. view the study of the field of chemical engineering as a tree with material and energy balances being the trunk and the subjects of thermodynamics, fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, reactor kinetics, process control, and. Chemical Process Simulation by Asghar Husain. He then worked for several years for a large specialty chemicals corporation and later he went to work for Clariant Corp. from the University of Delaware, and his M. Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory. Flash Distillation in Chemical & Process Engineering Learn How to Model and Operate Flash Distillation Units in Chemical Plants 4. Many times the solution involves designing a product (like a machine or computer code) that meets certain criteria and/or accomplishes a certain task. Professor Wood's startup tackles biopharmaceutical manufacturing problem. Peters and Klaus D. Chemical and Process Engineering Solution from the Industrial Engineering Area of ConceptDraw Solution Park is a unique tool which contains variety of predesigned process flow diagram symbols for easy creating various Chemical and Process Flow Diagrams in ConceptDraw PRO. Our pioneering work and state of the art facilities. The team Data Crunchers win at DataStorm 1. pages cm ISBN 978-1-118-34166-7 (hardback) 1. The actual courses you would take depend on which institution you attend, but expect to take a lot of math, chemistry, and engineering courses. 7m chemical engineering facility makes us one of only a few universities in the world where you can experience operating a complete chemical engineering process. Chemical engineering is the application of science, in particular physics and chemistry, along with mathematics and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. Heat Transfer. The course is didactic, with a lot of applied theory and Workshops/Study cases. I worked in the Biotech industry, but I wish to move to Houston and work in the Oil and Gas sector as a Process Engineer. Heat Transfer 4. Most chemical processes consist of a combination of various unit operations and unit processes. The engineering design process is a series of steps that engineers follow to come up with a solution to a problem. where as unit process involves a chemical change or sometime it refered as chemical changes along with physical change example production of paracetamol from benzene. Chemical and process engineers are key contributors to making working environments safer. At the end of the semester, I will obtain my masters degree in chemical engineering. Reaction engineering is a branch of chemical engineering that deals with the design and optimization of chemical reactors. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139. Fluid Handling Equipments : 6. equilibrium point Phase equilibrium and Reaction equilibrium. This article looks at three chemical engineering core curricula — process design, separations, and process control — to highlight the divide between academia and industry and suggest changes that would help modernize these courses and better prepare graduates for industry. u/chengineer005. Phase and Chemical Equilibria. Process Flow Diagram — Crude Oil Distillation Unit. Type of change: Physical or chemical Possibility (thermodynamic) and speed (Kinetics) End point vs. sheet of rev. This paper introduces a concept called an estimate triangle. Timmerhaus 2. com you can customize your own feeds, save searches, download white papers, and review your comments. Chemical engineers can deal effectively with problems involving chemical, biological, and physical phenomena. It involves molecular transformations—chemical, physical, and biological—with multi-scale description from the submolecular to the macroscopic, and the analysis and synthesis of such systems. 9 million grant for continued research on converting coal pitch into carbon fiber. Lang and Lang Factors. Qualifications. The actual courses you would take depend on which institution you attend, but expect to take a lot of math, chemistry, and engineering courses. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. The basic components of a typical chemical process are shown in Figure 1. Process engineers strive to recover as much energy as is practically possible from the available process and utility streams within the constraint of the plant. Books shelved as chemical-engineering: Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by Warren L. 3 represents a generalized process; not all the stages will be needed for any particular process and the complexity of each stage will depend on the. The uses of P&ID are as follows. Welcome to Chemical Engineering One of the key sectors in the economies of the English-speaking Caribbean is the process industry. 280 CiteScore measures the average citations received per document published in this title. Your reliable partner in executing Lumpsum Turnkey Projects, Construction of Plants in the field of Petrochemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Refineries, Fertilizers, Power & Chemicals Industries with its consistent performance. In the vast majority of chemical processes, in which some raw materials are processed to yield a desired end product or set of end products, there will be more than one raw material entering the system and more than one unit operation through which the product must pass in order to achieve the desired result. Robertson, Gregory M. Heat Transfer 4. The Semiconductor Research Corp. 32 Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, 4th ed. While the predominance of unit operations in chemical engineering courses in Britain and the United States continued until the 1960s, transport phenomena started to experience greater focus. 2 Stream Information 12. Chemical engineers learn the broad concepts of chemical engineering, but their work requires them to apply those concepts to specific production problems. Posts ChemE Discord Wiki. Waste water treating Unit shall be located near at the lowest point of the site so as to collect all of effluent streams from the processing Unit. Semester: III Type of course: Chemical Engineering. All modules are 4MCs, except when otherwise stated. Biomedical Engineering Design and Innovation I. Thermodynamics Subject Code CL20412CL Semester B. This article looks at three chemical engineering core curricula — process design, separations, and process control — to highlight the divide between academia and industry and suggest changes that would help modernize these courses and better prepare graduates for industry. The economic balance is applied to chemical engineering operations and processes. This subject deals with the application of the science and engineering science that you have learned to the separation of chemical and biological mixtures. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Finding prices for bulk chemicals has always been a challenge. Unit operations involve a physical change or chemical transformation such as separation, crystallization, evaporation, filtration, polymerization, isomerization, and other reactions. For example in milk processing, homogenization, pasteurization, chilling, and packaging are each unit operations which are connected to create the overall process. Process engineers are responsible for providing technical guidance on operating units within a refinery. A degree in chemical engineering will inspire and challenge you to cultivate pioneering solutions to global problems. Chemical engineering pairs the principals of chemistry, physics, and biology with the design skills of an engineer. Professor Wood's startup tackles biopharmaceutical manufacturing problem. Their work focuses on process engineering and project management from the conceptual design to a successful start-up. The opening sheet of the file EQUIPMENT COSTS is called CALCULATION PAGE. Unit 20: Engineering Primary Forming Processes Unit code: F/600/0271 QCF Level 3: BTEC National Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60 Aim and purpose This unit gives learners the opportunity to explore some of the primary forming processes found in engineering that are used to make a range of different components. Most chemical engineers have a master's degree and/or a Ph. It's a large private university in a large suburb. The focus is to publish papers on state-of-the-art chemical engineering and. , developing dyes, pigments, and various. 6 Year Experienced Process Engineering jobs in Houston? My back is against the wall. Here's a look at some of the courses chemical engineering students are expected to take in college. In this article we’ll inspire you with a chemical engineering resume example and explain what’s recommended to write in the objective, skills, duties and. The Department of Chemical Engineering pulled together to donate personal protective equipment, including gloves, masks and disposable gowns, to local health care workers to help battle COVID-19. The systematic study of unit operations began in the chemical engineering field, where calculation tools were developed to describe, based on engineer-ing principles, the changes taking place in each processing step. Design of a chemical process plant is the one activity unique to chemical engineering and is the strongest reason justifying the existence of chemical engineering as a distinct branch of engineering. We invite you to join us in our work. Introduction to chemical engineering, calculations, unit equations, process stoichiometry, material and energy balances, states of matter, case studies. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. Process intensification (PI) is a chemical and process design approach that leads to substantially smaller, cleaner, safer and more energy-efficient process technology. It is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and operation of machines and plants that perform chemical reactions to solve practical problems or make useful products. Congratulations Ashley, Maggie, and Liv!. Chemical processes. Manolito E Bambase Jr. Our BEng Chemical Engineering degree covers the principles of designing and operating an industrial process, including mass and energy balances, thermodynamics, fluid flow, heat transfer, chemical reactor theory, mixing and separation processes, process control, plant safety and process economics. Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with the application of physical science to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. This sample was created in ConceptDraw DIAGRAM software using the process flow diagram symbols from the libraries of Chemical and Process Engineering Solution. 011 Onsite power charged to grass-roots plant 1. This was done because the term "unit operations" has been largely superseded by the term "separation processes," which better reflects the modern nomenclature being used. Journal of Cleaner Production 2016 , 139 , 986-1000. List of important Chemical Processes 1. Chemical Engineering Student at University of Indonesia. Different engineering fundamentals are involved. Credit equivalence. Greg Newbloom is honored for Entrepreneurial Excellence, and Scott and Catherine Roberts are recognized for Distinguished Service. The minor consists of 18 or more hours of coursework in chemical engineering, including all of the following: CHE 2410 − Introduction to Chemical Process CHE 2421 − Thermodynamics I. An Analysis of Capital Cost Estimation Techniques for Chemical Processing by Omar Joel Symister A thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Florida Institute of Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Melbourne, Florida May, 2016. Developed by Paul Anastas and Julie Zimmerman*, these engineering principles outline what would make a greener chemical process or product. However, many have never considered or studied process dynamics. A professional chemical engineer has to take into account elements like. The department has approximately 500 employees (411 fte), 14 full-time professors, 370 Bachelor's and Master's students, about 145 doctoral candidates and 40. Chemical engineering unit operations consist of five classes: Fluid flow processes, including fluids transportation , filtration , and solids fluidization. The course is didactic, with a lot of applied theory and Workshops/Study cases. Professor Wood's startup tackles biopharmaceutical manufacturing problem. In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process. The technique of goal programming has been applied in Chemical Engineering by Kraslawski et al. PROCESS is familiar with the following additional aspects of industrial process projects:. One of these may be substituted with 10. 0 out of 5 stars 36. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering (7th edition)(McGraw Hill …. This document is highly rated by Chemical Engineering students and has been viewed 151 times. The Department of Chemical Engineering at Imperial College London is one of the world's leading institutions in both the teaching and research of chemical engineering and technology. Unit Operations Of Chemical Engineering 7th Edition Pdf. sheet of rev. They are the intermediary between the product development scientists who identified the new product and the chemical engineers who are building the pilot plant or manufacturing plant in order to make large quantities of it. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications (IJCEA) is an international academic open access journal which gains a foothold in Singapore, Asia and opens to the world. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139. At the moment, I have offers of an energy startup. Definitely one to check out. Chemical Engineering. The term ‘Engineering Controls’ covers a broad spectrum of possible interventions that are intended to reduce worker exposure, to chemical, physical and biological agents. Chemical Engineering thermodynamics - II Unit V - Refrigeration St. Introduction to Separation Process Engineering Why are we—as chemical engineers—required to study “separation processes”? Separations are crucial in chemical engi-neering (e. Known as the father of the discipline ‘Chemical Engineering’, George Davis gave the first 12 ‘Chemical Engineering’ lectures in the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. Welcome to the 3rd International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Process and Engineering. It develops your professional skills in engineering, mathematics, science, information technology, research, design, communication and management. Online conversion factor programs are free to use on this site. operating temperature _____ operating pressure _____ 2. , biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. His current research interests involve transport processes, biochemical reactor engineering, mass transfer in liquid solutions, and diffusion and/or reaction in porous solids. Process Dynamics and Control 6. We enable efficient operations management through effective cloud strategies, process manufacturing software, asset management, chemical manufacturing software, and Big Data analytics. nanotechnology, fuel cells and. National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011 - Chemical engineers research, design, and develop chemical processes and equipment, oversee the operation and maintenance of industrial chemical, plastics, pharmaceutical, resource, pulp and paper, and food processing plants and perform duties related to chemical quality control, environmental protection and biochemical or biotechnical engineering. At this point we like to list the kind of internships available to people with this degree, but there's not much point to that when it comes to Chemical Engineering. Chemical Engineering Laboratory ll. It is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and operation of machines and plants that perform chemical reactions to solve practical problems or make useful products. It characterizes a each physical or chemical change that occurs in a number of steps (i. It is essential that both the Graduate School and the Chemical Engineering Department receive the materials they require by the deadlines to be considered for admission. At the turn of the last century the major world powers were anticipating the great need for engineering expertise both at home and throughout their empires; to be competitive in the world markets required major. CiteScore: 3. Himmelblau. High-density ceramic filters are made of alumina or silicon carbide, while low-density ceramic filters are vacuum formed from refractory fibers. The Forensic Science consist of the following units: 1. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING WWW. Chemical Engineering & Materials Science Department Research Forum The annual CHEMS research forum is a great way to learn about department research and learn from invited speakers. Other branches – civil, mechanical, electrical, aerospace – are mainly applied physics. The Department of Chemical Engineering is continually working to provide nationally recognized excellence in engineering education and research. I am thus looking for an interesting job. Learn more about our department. In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process. Chemical engineering encompasses the translation of molecular information into discovery of new products and processes. The second is unit operations — which are a consistent set of building blocks that can be used to design a plant. Most of the major scientific challenges of the 21 st century — including sustainable energy resources, water quality issues, and process efficiency in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries — revolve around chemical engineering. University of the Philippines Los Baños SLIDE 10 Mass and Volume: Density and Specific Gravity Specific Gravity (sp gr) When referring to specific gravity, the temperature at which each density is measured. Unit processes and unit operations go hand in hand to constitute a process operation. It was originally intended as a test environment for CAPE-OPEN modeling tools but now provides a free chemical process simulation for students. SOLVE PROBLEMS. List by symbols each of the unknown values of the stream flows and compositions 7. MADISON TECHNICAL SOFTWARE Setting Standards for Process Design. 778 a list of engineering process flow diagrams and process data sheets document no. Weighted average of 8 of these: cement 2% paint 5% chemicals 48% paper 10% clay products 2% petroleum 22% glass 3% rubber 8% M&S was 100 in 1926. Welcome to the 3rd International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Process and Engineering. Our extensive experience in chemical industry consulting has put us in the best place to address these industry problems. Learn more about our department. Our course gives you a thorough grounding in the principles and practices of chemical engineering. That situation motivated Dr. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. ACCEL is a Public Limited Company and subsidiary of Industrial Engineering Corporation (IEC), Chennai based company and is the pioneer in HVACR field for over four decades. Solid-Liquid Separation is a major unit operation that exists in almost every flowscheme related to the chemical process industries, ore beneficiation, pharmaceutics, food or water and waste treatment. rules of thumb for chemical engineers pdf free download. Chemical engineering: CENG 150 or CENG 210; 300, 301, 315, 411; Senior Requirement B. Process Engineering Manager: Job Duties & Career Requirements Read on to learn more about what process engineering managers do. Process chemists divide their time between the laboratory and the plant. View more engineering and manufacturing jobs Skills for your CV. e-books in Chemical Engineering category Flow and Heat or Mass Transfer in the Chemical Process Industry by Dimitrios V. High-density ceramic filters are made of alumina or silicon carbide, while low-density ceramic filters are vacuum formed from refractory fibers. It also made unit operations to be treated central in chemical engineering. Chemical Technology - I by Dr. Chemical engineering courses Chemical engineers are involved in the design, development and operation of systems and procedures that change raw materials into useable and useful end products - which could be anything from pharmaceuticals, to make-up, to plastics. A list of features includes: Thermodynamics for Engineering Applications,. Choose from 500 different sets of engineering 1 unit 2 process flashcards on Quizlet. Papavassiliou, Quoc T. Department of Chemical Engineering. 02 UK English 14 Objectives. At Iowa our class sizes are small, which enables close interactions between students and faculty. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification aims to be the premier publication for research contributions on process intensification concerning the chemical process industry, energy and environmental applications. Type of change: Physical or chemical Possibility (thermodynamic) and speed (Kinetics) End point vs.